Abstracts Volume 13

Abstracts Volume 13
Volume 13

Part 1-2, September 2012

Lourenço, W.R. & Cloudsley-Thompson, J.L. pp. 1-7.

About the enigmatic presence of the genus Scorpio Linnaeus, 1758 in Congo with the description of a new species from Niger (Scorpiones, Scorpionidae).

For almost a century, Scorpio maurus L., 1758 (Scorpiones, Scorpionidae) has been considered to be no more than a widespread and presumably highly polymorphic species. Recent investigation of the ancient classifications by Birula (1910) and Vachon (1952) have led to the consideration of several African populations at the rank of species. Two new species have also been described from Cameroon (Lourenço, 2009) and Sudan Lourenço & Cloudsley-Thompson, 2009), countries not previously recorded as containing members of the genus Scorpio. In the present paper, the enigmatic presence of the genus Scorpio in Congo has been tentatively clarified, and this record is attributed to mislabelling. A new species is also described from Niger. It is the first confirmed record of a species of Scorpio from that country.
Lourenço, W.R. & Simon, E. pp. 8-15.
Confirmation of a new species of Buthus Leach, 1815 from Alexandria, Egypt (Scorpiones, Buthidae).

During the last decade, the genus Buthus Leach, 1815 (Family Buthidae) was the subject of several studies. These concerned in particular the ‘Buthus occitanus’ complex of species. Several populations previously considered as subspecies or varieties were raised to the rank of species and many new species were also described. The majority of the species considered in these studies come mostly from Northwest Africa. In a recent paper, the questionable presence of the genus Buthus in Egypt, in other regions than Sinai, was reconsidered and one new species was described from the region of Siwa. In some unpublished notes by E. Simon, the genus Buthus was recorded from Alexandria, but these data were not confirmed subsequently. The material studied by E. Simon was recently ‘relocated’ in the collections of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle in Paris. It is described here as a new species.
Graham, M.R., Stoev, P., Akkari, N., Blagoev, G. & Fet, V. pp. 16-26.
Euscorpius sicanus (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae) from Tunisia: DNA barcoding confirms ancient disjunctions across the Mediterranean Sea.

We used a DNA barcoding marker (mitochondrial cox1) to investigate the controversial natural occurrence of Euscorpius sicanus (C.L. Koch) in North Africa. We tested this hypothesis by comparing a sample collected from a mountain in Tunisia to disjunct populations in Sardinia, Malta, and Greece. Using these samples, and a few additional Euscorpius spp. from southern Europe as outgroups, we reconstructed the maternal phylogeny. We then used a molecular clock to place the phylogeny in a temporal context. The Tunisian sample grouped closest to a specimen from Sardinia, with both being more distantly related to E. sicanus from Malta, which is known to be genetically similar to samples from Sicily. Molecular clock estimates suggest an ancient disjunction across the Mediterranean Sea, with the divergence between samples from Sardinia and Tunisia estimated to have occurred between the Late Miocene and late Pliocene. The divergence date (mean = 5.56 Mya) closely corresponds with the timing of a sudden refilling of the Mediterranean Sea after it had evaporated during the Messinian salinity crisis. This rapid influx of water, in conjunction with tectonic activity, could have sundered connections between Euscorpius in North Africa and what is now the island of Sardinia. These results provide yet another case in which DNA barcodes have proven useful for more than just identifying and discovering species.
Sadine, S.E., Alioua, Y. & Chenchouni, H. pp. 27-37.
First data on scorpion diversity and ecological distribution in the National Park of Belezma, Northeast Algeria.

This study refers to the observations and collections of scorpions at National Park of Belezma (NPB), in Batna, Northeast Algeria. During the summer of 2006, the investigations conducted in the forests of Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica M.), of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis L.) and Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) resulted in collecting a total of 103 scorpion specimens representing three species, belonging to two different families. The family Buthidae is represented by Androctonus bicolor (relative abundance “RA” = 1.9%) and Buthus occitanus (RA = 82.5%). The family Scorpionidae is represented only by Scorpio maurus (RA = 15.5%). According to the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), two groups with more or less homogeneous distribution are distinguished: A. bicolor and S. maurus frequent foothills dominated by the herbaceous layer between 900 to 1100 meters of altitude, while B. occitanus was found in high mountain habitats at more than 1300 meters of altitude where the covering of woody vegetation is high. The main habitats colonized by these species are discussed according to their orographic characteristics, general appearance of the substrate and the structure of vegetation cover.
Touloun, O., Boumezzough, A. & Slimani, T. pp. 38-50.
Scorpion envenomation in the region of Marrakesh Tensift Alhaouz (Morocco): epidemiological characterization and therapeutic approaches.

Morocco is a country in northwest Africa on the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean which presents an extremely diversified and rich scorpion fauna. In the Marrakesh Tensift Alhaouz region, scorpions have great medical importance where scorpionism remains a genuine public health problem for local populations. Scientific expeditions in this region, carried out since 1994, allowed us to record 11 species and subspecies that represent 28% of Moroccan scorpion fauna, including ten that are endemic to the country. The distribution maps of all these species had already been established and then updated, which allowed us to specify new factors affecting their distribution modes. The present epidemiological study on scorpionism through prospective investigation has shown the severity of this problem. Of 724 scorpion sting cases, 32 deaths were reported between 1996 and 2006. Androctonus mauritanicus (Pocock, 1902) is the most medically important scorpion species in the study area (responsible for 53% of cases). Respective elevated morbidity and mortality rates of 30% and 48% have been recorded from accidents occurring in dwelling interiors. Limb extremities comprise the body areas that most exposed to stings (59%) which occurred predominantly during the summer period (53%). The age group most affected ranged from 16 to 30 years old (42%). This study determined some epidemiological characteristics of these envenomations and established their causes, origins and consequences.
Omran, M.A.A. pp. 51-64.
The Scorpion and its Venom (Review Article).

The current article describes one of the most fascinating animals, the scorpion, and its miraculous and amazing venom. Also, it will deal with and focus on the concept of intraspecific diversity of scorpions’ venom (a major source of novel pharmacologically important toxins) and its relation to the microevolution within a single species of scorpion as well as its implication on the pathophysiological effects. This commentary will be divided into several “scenes” trying to make it interesting rather than boring scientific subject.
Yiğit, N., Erdek, M., Koç, H., Bayram, A. & Melekoğlu, A. pp. 65-72.
The comparative morphology of the suctorial organ of the male Biton zederbaueri and Gluviopsilla discolor (Arachnida: Solifugae: Daesiidae).

Solifuges possess suctorial organs at the tip of the distal tarsus of each pedipalp, as distinct from other arachnids. By means of this organ solifuges can climb smooth, vertical surfaces and can also grasp prey. In the present study, the comparative morphology of male Biton zederbaueri (Werner, 1905) and Gluviopsilla discolor (Kraepelin, 1899) (Daesiidae, Solifugae) is studied by using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The suctorial organ is covered with upper and lower cuticular lips. The corrugated-adhesive structure of the suctorial organ protrudes between these cuticular plates. On the matatarsi of the pedipalps, there are filiform spines and hollow tubular spines that vary from species to species. Pore-like structures are described on the apex of the tarsus of the pedipalp.
Mitov, P.G. pp. 73-82.
Four new harvestmen records from Turkey (Arachnida: Opiliones).

Up till now, a total of 97 harvestmen species have been recorded from Turkey. The present study adds four further records – Mediostoma stussineri, Rilaena buresi, Rafalskia olympica bulgarica, and Dasylobus beschkovi – to the Turkish opilionid fauna. For each of these, detailed data on the collecting locality and general distribution are provided, and their conservation status is commented upon.
Bosselaers, J. pp. 83-90. 
Two interesting new ground spiders (Araneae) from the Canary Islands and Greece.

A new Zelotes species from the tenuis group, Zelotes henderickxi, is described from Tenerife, Canary Islands. A new and remarkable spider genus from the Greek Peloponnese, Vankeeria, is described, and attributed to Liocranidae. The genus is monotypic and known to date only from the type species, Vankeeria catoptronifera.
Thaler-Knoflach, B. & El-Hennawy, H.K. pp. 91-98.
Theridion incanescens Simon, 1890 and Theridion jordanense Levy & Amitai, 1982 new to the fauna of Egypt (Araneae: Theridiidae).

Theridion incanescens Simon, 1890 and T. jordanense Levy & Amitai, 1982 are succinctly described and recorded for the first time from Egypt. The male of T. jordanense is introduced for the first time. As taxonomic novelty the synonymy of Theridion egyptium Fawzy & El Erksousy, 2002 with T. jordanense is proposed.
Bosmans, R. & Gavish-Regev, E. pp. 99-103.
A new synonymy in a linyphiid spider from Egypt (Araneae: Linyphiidae).

Bathyphantes extricatus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1876) is transferred to the genus Sengletus Tanasevitch, 2008 n. comb. and Sengletus longiscapus Tanasevitch, 2008 becomes its junior synonym (N. Syn.). The species occurs in Egypt, Iran and Israel (new record).
Akpınar, A. & Varol, İ. pp. 104-107.
First record of family Cithaeronidae (Arachnida: Araneae) from Turkey.

Family Cithaeronidae is recorded for the first time from Turkey. Three males and four females of Cithaeron praedonius O.P.-Cambridge, 1872 were collected. Morphological features, zoogeographical distribution and description of the species are presented.
Danışman, T., Erdek, M. & Coşar, İ. pp. 108-110.
A new clubionid spider record from Turkey (Araneae: Clubionidae).

This short paper reports one clubionid species which is new for the Turkish araneo-fauna. The characteristic features and photographs of Clubiona terrestris Westring, 1851 are presented. The total number of clubionid species recorded from Turkey is now eight.
Coşar, İ., Danışman, T. & Erdek, M. pp. 111-113.
A new linyphiid spider record from Turkey (Araneae: Linyphiidae).

This short paper reports a linyphid species which is new for the Turkish araneo-fauna. The characteristic features and photographs of Meioneta punctata (Wunderlich, 1995) are presented. The total number of linyphid species recorded from Turkey is now 105.
Topçu, A., Türkeş, T., Demircan, N. & Karabulut, H. pp. 114-117.
New records of family Oonopidae (Araneae) in Turkey.

In this study, Opopaea punctata (O.P.-Cambridge, 1872) and Silhouettella loricatula (Roewer, 1942) of family Oonopidae are recorded from Turkey for the first time. Silhouettella osmaniye Wunderlich, 2011 was collected again from Turkey. The characteristic features of these species are described and illustrated.
Özdikmen, H. & Demir, H. pp. 118-120.
Two new names of the specific epithets cubanum and maculatum in Trichopelma cubanum (Banks, 1909) and Trichopelma maculatum (Franganillo, 1930) (Araneae: Barychelidae).

According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999), the authors request the rejection of the specific epithets of Trichopelma cubanum (Banks, 1909) and Trichopelma maculatum (Franganillo, 1930) [Family Barychelidae] and propose Trichopelma banksia comb. nov. and Trichopelma eucubanum comb. nov. instead of them.
Dippenaar-Schoeman, A.S., Lyle, R. & Van den Berg, A.M. pp. 121-127.
Bioinformatics on the spiders of South Africa.

Signatories of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) are obligated to develop a strategic plan for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. To meet the requirement of the CBD, the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA) was initiated in 1997 by the Agricultural Research Council (ARC). The South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) came on board for the project’s second phase in partnership with the ARC. During this four-year project an attempt was made to consolidate all the available data on South African spiders into one database. Two modules of the database are available online containing bioinformatics on families, genera and species as well as a virtual museum providing images of spiders. All this data was used to compile the First Atlas of the Spider Species of South Africa. Presently 71 spider families, 471 genera and 2028 species are known from South Africa, representing approximately 4.8% of the world fauna. Of the 2028 spider species, 1241 (61%) are endemic to the country. The third phase of SANSA started in 2011 and several bioinformatics actions are planned, such as Red Listing of species, a handbook series for all the biomes, publication of the atlas, and description of new species.
Bosmans, R. & Van Keer, J. pp. 128-168.
A review and new records of the comb-footed spiders in North Africa (Araneae: Theridiidae).

All previous records of Theridiidae occuring in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt are summarized, and new data are presented. The following new synonyms are proposed: Theridion argus Lucas, 1846 = Steatoda lineiventris Pavesi, 1884 = Crustulina scabripes Simon, 1881 N. SYN. The following species are cited from North Africa for the first time: Asagena italica (Knoflach, 1996), Dipoena braccata (C.L. Koch, 1841), Parasteatoda lunata (Clerck, 1757), Robertus arundineti (O.P-Cambridge, 1871), Simitidion agaricographum (Levy & Amitai, 1982), Steatoda nobilis (Thorell, 1875), Theridion familiare O.P.-Cambridge, 1871 and Theridion hermonense Levy, 1991. A total of 99 species, of 30 genera, are recognised in North Africa at this time based on literature and own collecting efforts. Several other species await description.
Ghallab, M.M.A. pp. 169-181.
Preliminary study of the spiders inhabiting ornamental plants in Orman garden, Egypt (Arachnida: Araneae).

A survey of spider community composition and diversity associated with foliage of two ornamental plants (Lantana shrubs and Croton trees) was carried out in the Orman garden. Foliage beating, hand collecting and sweep nets were used. Numbers of collected spiders were pooled and analysed for species diversity using Shannon-Wiener Index, evenness, Simpson Index and Sørensen Quotient of Similarity.
A total of 567 spiders grouped in 13 families belonging to 34 genera and more than 34 species. Vegetation type influenced spider abundance. Lantana shrubs received 263 individuals belonged to 25 genera, 27 species of 13 families, while Croton trees received 304 individuals belonged to 21 genera, 22 species of 10 families.
Five families contained 85.17% of the total collected spiders; they are Miturgidae, Philodromidae, Salticidae, Theridiidae and Araneidae. Miturgidae was the most abundant family (20.1%) followed by Philodromidae (19.75%), Salticidae (18.3%), Theridiidae (14.6%) and Araneidae (12.3%). The other remaining families represented 14.6% of the total catch.
Guild structure analysis revealed seven feeding guilds namely, stalker, ground runner, foliage runner, ambusher, orb web spiders, space weaver and wandering sheet spiders. Guild structure varied considerably in relation to the structural quality of vegetation; the foliage runner, stalker and ambusher spider guilds were the dominant feeding guilds on Lantana representing 14.5, 12.3 & 11.5%, respectively of the total collected spiders, while the orb web spiders, the space weavers and the ambushers were the dominant feeding guilds on Croton representing 13.8, 12.8 and 12.7, respectively.
El-Hennawy, H.K., Medany, D.M., Orabi, G.M., Semida, F.M. & Abdel-Dayem, M.S. pp. 182-186.
The first record of Halodromus patellidens (Levy, 1977) (Araneae: Philodromidae) in Egypt.

Halodromus patellidens (Levy, 1977) of family Philodromidae is recorded from Ismailia, Egypt for the first time.
El-Hennawy, H.K. pp. 187-190.
The first record of Mermessus denticulatus (Banks, 1898) (Araneae: Linyphiidae) in Egypt.

Mermessus denticulatus (Banks, 1898) and genus Mermessus O.P.-Cambridge, 1899 of family Linyphiidae are recorded from Egypt for the first time.

Part 3-4, November 2013

Sarhan, M.M.H., Sayed, A.B., Mostafa, M.A. & Yasin, A.E. pp. 201-210.

Prey-capture behaviour of the Egyptian scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus (Ehrenberg, 1828) (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae).

The scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus, a desert dwelling burrower (Family Scorpionidae) is common in the North African and Middle East countries. In Egypt, it is recorded from Wadi Natrun, Cairo, Faiyum, Western Mediterranean Coastal Desert, Southern & Central Sinai, and Elba protected area. Despite of its wide distribution, little is known about its behavioural aspects. In this study, prey-capture by Scorpio maurus palmatus was observed in the laboratory. The behaviour components displayed in prey-capture were identified, compiled into a flow chart (ethogram), analyzed and discussed.
Coşar, İ. & Danışman, T. pp. 211-214.
New records for the spider fauna of Turkey (Araneae: Salticidae).

Two salticid spider species, Chalcoscirtus catherinae Prószyński, 2000 and Heliophanus curvidens (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872) are recorded for the first time from Turkey. Their morphology is briefly described and illustrated.
Arslan, M., Danışman, T. & Kunt, K.B. pp. 215-217.
A new oonopid spider record from Turkey (Araneae: Oonopidae).

This short paper reports one oonopid species which is new for the Turkish araneo-fauna. The characteristic features and photographs of Orchestina simoni (Dalmas, 1916) are presented. The total number of oonopid species recorded from Turkey becomes now 5 species.
Rizk, M.A., Ghallab, M.M., Zaki, A.Y. & Wahba, B.S. pp. 218-227.
The effect of some new miticides on the spider mite Tetranychus urticae in water melon crop and their side effects on spiders (Araneae) at Fayoum governorate, Egypt.

The efficiency of different groups of pesticides for suppressing the population of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, on water melon plants was studied. The pesticides include: I. three biochemical compounds: Yurmak 1.8% EC (Abamectin), Veto 5% EC (Abamectin), and Biofly 30x103 WP (Beauvaria bassiana),   II. three acaricides: Ortus 5% SC (Fenpyroximate), Acarots 5% EW (Fenpyroximate), and Prince 10% EC (Hexythiazox), and III. two mixture compounds: Nest 20% SC (Abamectin 2% + Spirodiclofen 18%) and Perfect 12% EW (Abamectin 2% +  Chlorfenapyr 10%). They were applied for one time to control T. urticae infesting water melon plants during the experiment period.
The different acaricides formulations were effective control of T. urticae at least two weeks after application. Abamectin (biochemical) was more effective in reducing T. urticae population than spiders and with less effect against associated predators, while Hexythiazox was the most harmful acaricide in reducing spider populations. The results will be used to develop IPM Programs with spiders in agricultural crops.

El-Hennawy, H.K. pp. 228-275.
Preliminary list of Lebanese spiders and other arachnids (except ticks and mites).

Six orders of class Arachnida were recorded from Lebanon; in addition to Acari (ticks and mites are outside the scope of this work). They are: Araneae (38 Families, 109 genera, 165 species), Scorpiones (2 Families, 10 genera, 12 species), Pseudoscorpiones (7 Families, 8 genera, 10 species), Opiliones (3 Families, 8 genera, 10 species), Solifugae (1 Family, 1 genus, 2 species), and Palpigradi (1 Family, 1 genus, 2 species). The total is: 52 Families, 137 genera, 201 species. Each order section includes recorded taxa with their localities, list of species, keys to scorpion species and families of spiders and pseudoscorpions.

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